18 Gold augustale of Friedrich II ‘Stupor Mundi’, Holy Roman Emperor, 1231 A.D. This coin was issued in his capacity as king of Sicily in a conscious imitation of the coins of ancient Rome. Their fine style and design provided a stark contrast to the prevailing poor quality of contemporaneous coins. Though ultimately unsuccessful, these coins were early indicators of the economic recovery Western Europe and pointed the way to the reintroduction of gold in the West over the next century.